About Baseball

General

Méta game
Méta
Cricket match
Cricket
Sandlot baseball
Baseball

Baseball is a stick-and-ball sport. It is similar to cricket and méta.

A baseball team has nine players.

The Field

Field diagram

The basic parts of a baseball field are four bases and a pitcher's marker.
The bases form a square near a corner of the field.
They are arranged in counter-clockwise order: first base, second base, third base, and home base.
The pitcher's marker is at a fixed distance from home base near the center of the square.

There are two boundary lines.
One extends from home base through first base.
The other extends from home base through third base.

Field: infield and outfield, fair and foul

The two boundary lines divide the field into fair territory and foul territory.
Fair territory is between the lines.
Foul territory is outside the lines.

The infield is the area in fair territory inside the square made by the bases.

The outfield is the rest of fair territory farther from home base.

A Team's Batting Order

Batting order card

At the beginning of a game, each team declares their batting order.
This is the sequence in which the 9 players will take their turn as batters when that team is on offense.
The batting order is a cycle; when the last batter is finished, the first batter takes another turn.

Offense and Defense

Batter
The batter is ready
to hit the ball.
Fielder
Players on defense are
ready to catch the ball.

The teams alternate roles on offense and defense.
The visiting team begins the game on offense.
The home team begins on defense.

Offense

The team currently on offense stays off the field in their bench area.
The offense sends the next player in the batting order onto the field as a batter who tries to hit the game ball with a bat onto fair territory so he can become a base runner (or runner) who touches every base in the proper order—first, second, third, and home—to score a run (a point) for his team.
Batters and runners must wear helmets.

Defense

The team on defense occupies the playing field (and so they are called fielders).
Fielders may wear a leather glove on one hand (the non-throwing hand) to catch the game ball.
They use the game ball to put out (eliminate) the other team's batters and runners before they can score runs.

Strike zone Pitch to batter
When the team on offense sends a batter to home base, a special player on the defense called the pitcher must pitch the ball (legally throw the ball) into the strike zone (a hittable region above home base) so that the batter can try to hit it with the bat. If the batter hits a fair ball (one that goes onto the playing field), then he becomes a runner who tries to score a run. Meanwhile the fielders try to use the ball to put out the batter and any runners. A batter or runner who is put out must return to his bench area and wait for his next turn to be the batter.

Runners

Safe avoiding tag Runner on base Two runners at one base

Generally speaking, a runner is safe (that is, he cannot be put out) whenever he is touching a base with any part of his body.
If a runner thinks it unwise to advance further on a given play (usually that means that the game ball is near), then he can stop at an unoccupied base and wait for another opportunity to advance toward home base.

Only one runner can be safe at a given base at a time. If two runners touch the same base simultaneously, at least one of them remains at risk of being put out.
Also, the batting order is the running order; runners may not pass each other.

Outs

Here are the four most common ways that the defense can put out batters or runners:

Innings

When three outs are made, the teams reverse roles; the team on defense goes to their bench area and becomes the offense, and the players of the team recently on offense pick up their gloves and go onto the field as the defense.

Each cycle of six outs (three for each team) is called an inning.

The winning team is the one that scores the most runs after a regulation number of innings (nine for adults, six or seven for younger players).
If after nine innings the score is tied, the teams continue to play extra innings until one team finally has more runs at the end of an inning.

Ending a Game

There is no clock.
The game continues until the ending conditions are met, and one team is declared the winner.